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His name was given to the Asteroid Vundtia Overview of Wundt's work[ edit ] Wundt was initially a physician and a well-known neurophysiologist before turning to sensory physiology and psychophysics. He was convinced that, for example, the process of spatial perception could not solely be explained on a physiological level, but also involved psychological principles. Wundt founded experimental psychology as a discipline and became a pioneer of cultural psychology. He created a broad research programme in empirical psychology and developed a system of philosophy and ethics from the basic concepts of his psychology — bringing together several disciplines in one person.
Wundt's epistemological position — against John Locke and English empiricism sensualism — was made clear in his book Beiträge zur Theorie der Sinneswahrnehmung Contributions on the Theory of Sensory Perception published inby his use of a quotation from Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz on the title page: "Nihil est in intellectu quod non fuerit in sensu, nisi intellectu ipse.
Principles that are not present in sensory impressions can be recognised in human perception and consciousness: logical inferencescategories of thought, the principle of causalitythe principle of zell am see singletrack teleologythe principle of emergence and other epistemological principles.
An investigation into the principles of knowledge and the methods of scientific research; 4th ed. An investigation into developmental laws of language, myth, and conduct, 10 Vols. These 22 volumes cover an immense variety of topics. On examination of the complete works, however, a close relationship between Wundt's theoretical psychology, epistemology and methodology can be seen.
English translations are only available for the best-known works: Principles of physiological Psychology only the single-volume 1st ed. Wundt's work remains largely inaccessible without advanced knowledge of German. Its reception, therefore, is still greatly hampered by misunderstandings, stereotypes and superficial judgements. Mental psychological phenomena are changing processes of consciousness.
They can only be determined as an actualityan "immediate reality of an event in the psychological experience".
The delineation of categories Wundt considered that reference to the subject Subjektbezugvalue assessment Wertbestimmungthe existence of purpose Zwecksetzungand volitional acts Willenstätigkeit to be specific and fundamental categories for psychology.
Leibniz wrote: "Souls act according to the laws of final causes, through aspirations, ends and means. Bodies act according to the laws of efficient causes, i.
And these two realms, that of efficient causes and that of final causes, harmonize with one another.
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Both causalities, however, are not opposites in a dualistic metaphysical sense, but depend on the standpoint  Causal explanations in psychology must be content to seek the effects of the antecedent causes without being able to derive exact predictions. Using the example of volitional acts, Wundt describes possible inversion in considering cause and effect, ends and meansand explains how causal and teleological explanations can complement one another to establish a co-ordinated consideration.
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Wundt's position differed from contemporary authors who also favoured parallelism. Instead of being content with the postulate of parallelism, he developed his principles of mental causality in contrast to the natural causality of neurophysiology, and a corresponding methodology. There are two fundamentally different approaches of the postulated psychophysical unit, not just two points-of-view in the sense of Gustav Theodor Fechner's identity hypothesis.
Psychological and physiological statements exist in two categorically different reference systems ; the important categories are to be emphasised in order to prevent category mistakes as discussed by Nicolai Hartmann.
Apperception Apperception is Wundt's central theoretical concept. Leibniz described apperception as the process in very small single bedroom ideas the elementary sensory impressions pass into self- very small single bedroom ideas individual aspirations striving, volitional acts play an essential role.
Wundt developed psychological concepts, used experimental psychological methods and put forward neuropsychological modelling in the frontal cortex of the brain system — in line with today's thinking. Apperception exhibits a range of theoretical assumptions on the integrative process of consciousness. The selective control of attention is an elementary example of such active cognitive, emotional and motivational integration.
Development theory of the mind The fundamental task is to work out a comprehensive development theory of the mind — from animal psychology to the very small single bedroom ideas cultural achievements in language, religion and ethics. Unlike other thinkers of his time, Wundt had no difficulty connecting the development concepts of the humanities in the spirit of Friedrich Hegel and Johann Gottfried Herder with the biological theory of evolution as expounded by Charles Darwin.
Critical realism Wundt determined that "psychology is an empirical science co-ordinating natural science and humanities, and that the considerations of both complement one another in the sense that only together can they create for us a potential empirical knowledge. Definition of psychology Wundt set himself the task of redefining the broad field of psychology between philosophy and physiology, between the humanities and the natural sciences. In place of the metaphysical definition as a science of the soul came the definition, based on scientific theory, of empirical psychology as a psychology of consciousness with its own categories and epistemological principles.
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Размышляя об этом, Сьюзан вдруг вспомнила фразу, сказанную Стратмором: Я попытался запустить «Следопыта» самостоятельно, но информация, которую он выдал, оказалась бессмысленной.
Psychology examines the österreich singlebörse kostenlos experience in its immediately subjective reality. Psychology is not a science of the individual soul.
Life is a uniform mental and physical process very small single bedroom ideas can be considered in a variety of ways in order to recognise general principles, particularly the psychological-historical and biological principles of development. Wundt demanded an understanding of the very small single bedroom ideas and the volitional functions, in addition to cognitive features, as equally important aspects of the unitary whole psychophysical process.
Psychology cannot be reduced to physiology. The tools of physiology remain fundamentally insufficient for the task of psychology. Such a project is meaningless "because the interrelations between mental processes would be incomprehensible even if the interrelations between brain processes were as clearly understood as the mechanism of a pocket watch.
Psychology is concerned with conscious processes. Wundt rejected making subconscious mental processes a topic of scientific psychology for epistemological and methodological reasons.
In his day there were, before Sigmund Freudinfluential authors such as the philosopher Eduard von Hartmannwho postulated a metaphysics of the unconscious. Wundt had two fundamental objections. He rejected all primarily metaphysically founded psychology and he saw no reliable methodological approach. He also soon revised his initial assumptions about unconscious judgements   When Wundt rejects the assumption of "the unconscious" he is also showing his scepticism regarding Fechner's theory of the unconscious and Wundt is perhaps even more greatly influenced by the flood of writing at the time on hypnotism and spiritualism Wundt, While Freud frequently quoted from Wundt's work, Wundt remained sceptical about all hypotheses that operated with the concept of "the unconscious".
Numerous behavioural and psychological variables had already been observed very small single bedroom ideas measured at the Leipzig laboratory.
Wundt stressed that physiological effects, for example the physiological changes accompanying feelingswere only tools of psychology, as were the physical measurements of stimulus intensity in psychophysics.
Further developing these methodological approaches one-sidedly would ultimately, however, lead to a behavioural physiology, i.
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Psychology is an empirical humanities science. Wundt was convinced of the triple status of psychology: as a science of the direct experience it contrasts with the natural sciences that refer to the indirect content of experience and abstract from the subject; as a science "of generally valid forms of direct human experience it is the foundation of the humanities"; among all very small single bedroom ideas empirical sciences it was "the one whose results most benefit the examination of the general problems very small single bedroom ideas epistemology and ethics — the two fundamental areas of philosophy.
The interrelationships between physiology, philosophy, logic, epistemology and ethics are therefore essential for an understanding of Wundt's psychology. The core of Wundt's areas of interest and guiding ideas can already be seen in his Vorlesungen über die Menschen- und Tierseele Lectures on Human and Animal Psychology of individual psychology now known as general psychology, i.
The initial conceptual outlines of the year-old Wundtled to a long research program, to the founding of the first Institute and to the treatment of psychology as a discipline, as well as to a range of fundamental textbooks and numerous other publications. Physiology[ edit ] Very small single bedroom ideas the Heidelberg years from toVery small single bedroom ideas published numerous essays on physiology, particularly on experimental neurophysiology, a textbook on human physiology4th ed.
He wrote about 70 reviews of current publications in the fields of neurophysiology and neurology, physiology, anatomy and histology.
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A second area of work was sensory very small single bedroom ideas, including spatial perception, visual perception and optical illusions. An optical illusion described by him is called the Wundt illusiona variant of the Hering Illusion. It shows how straight lines appear curved when seen against a set of radiating lines. Wundt illusion Starting point[ edit ] As a result of his medical training and his work as an assistant to Hermann von Helmholtz, Wundt knew the benchmarks of experimental research, as well as the speculative nature of psychology in the midth century.
Wundt's aspiration for scientific research and the necessary methodological critique were clear when he wrote of the language of ordinary people, who merely invoked their personal experiences of life, criticized naive introspection, or quoted the influence of uncritical amateur "folk" psychology on psychological interpretation.
It is an understanding very small single bedroom ideas, from every side of the history of the natural sciences, informs us that the progress of every science is closely connected with the progress made regarding experimental methods.
He wanted to connect two sciences with one another. In psychology humans examine themselves, as it were, from within and look for the connections between these processes to explain which of them represent this inner observation. Through his insistence that mental processes were analysed in their elements, Wundt did not want to create a pure element psychology because the elements should simultaneously be related to one another.
He describes the sensory impression with the simple sensory feelings, perceptions and volitional acts connected with them, and he explains dependencies and feedbacks. Apperception theory Wundt rejected the widespread association theoryaccording to which mental connections learning are mainly formed through the frequency and intensity of particular processes. His term apperception psychology means that he considered the creative conscious activity to be more important than elementary association.
Apperception is an emergent activity that is both arbitrary and selective as well as imaginative and comparative. In this process, feelings and ideas are images apperceptively connected with typical tones of feeling, selected in a variety of ways, analysed, associated and combined, as well as linked with motor and autonomic functions — not simply processed but also creatively synthesised see below on the Principle of creative synthesis.
In the integrative process of conscious activity, Wundt sees an elementary activity of the subject, i. Insofar that this emergent activity is typical of all mental processes, it is possible to describe his point-of-view as voluntaristic.
Wundt describes apperceptive processes as psychologically highly differentiated and, in many regards, bases this on methods and results from his experimental research.
One example is the wide-ranging series of experiments on the mental chronometry of complex reaction times. In research on feelings, certain effects very small single bedroom ideas provoked while pulse and breathing are recorded using a kymograph. The unterschied partnervermittlung singlebörse differences were intended to contribute towards supporting Wundt's theory of emotions with its three dimensions: pleasant — unpleasant, tense — relaxed, excited — depressed.
The dynamics of cultural development were investigated according to psychological and epistemological principles.
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Very small single bedroom ideas principles were derived from Wundt's psychology of apperception theory of higher integrative very small single bedroom ideas, including association, assimilationsemantic change and motivation willas presented in his Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie6th ed. In contrast to individual psychology, cultural psychology aims to illustrate general mental development laws governing higher intellectual processes: the development of thought, language, artistic imagination, myths, religion, customs, the relationship of individuals to society, the intellectual environment and the creation of intellectual works in a society.
Stimulated by the ideas of previous thinkers, such as HerderHerbartHegel and Wilhelm von Humboldt with his ideas about comparative linguisticsthe psychologist Moritz Lazarus and the linguist Heymann Steinthal founded the Zeitschrift für Völkerpsychologie und Sprachwissenschaft Journal for Cultural Psychology and Linguistics inwhich gave this field its name.
Wundt critically analysed the, in his view, still disorganised intentions of Lazarus and Steinthal and limited the scope of the issues by proposing a psychologically constituted structure. The cultural psychology of language, myth, and customs were to be based on the three main areas of general psychology: imagining and thought, feelings, and will motivation. The numerous mental interrelations and principles were to be researched under the perspective of cultural development.
Apperception theory applied equally for general psychology and cultural psychology. Changes in meanings and motives were examined in many lines of development, and there are detailed interpretations based on the emergence principle creative synthesisthe principle of unintended side-effects heterogony of ends and the principle of contrast see section on Methodology and Strategies.
The ten volumes consist of: Language Vols. The methodology of cultural psychology was mainly described later, in Logik Wundt worked on, psychologically linked, and structured an immense amount of material.
The topics range from agriculture and trade, crafts and property, through gods, myths and Christianity, marriage and family, peoples and nations to self- education and self-awareness, science, the world and humanity. Wundt recognized about 20 fundamental dynamic motives in cultural development.
Motives frequently quoted in cultural development are: division of labour, ensoulment, salvation, happiness, production and imitation, child-raising, artistic drive, welfare, arts and magic, adornment, guilt, punishment, atonement, self-education, play, and revenge. Other values and motives emerge in the areas of freedom and justice, war and peace, legal structures, state structures and forms of government; also regarding the development of a world view of culture, religion, state, traffic, and a worldwide political and social society.
In religious considerations, many of the values and motives i. Wundt saw examples of human self-education in walking upright, physical facilities and "an interaction in part forced upon people by external conditions and in part the result of voluntary culture". In the interaction of human activity and the conditions of nature he saw a creative principle of culture right from the start; tools as cultural products of a second nature.
An interactive system of cause and effect, a system of purposes and thus values and reflexively from standards of one's own activities is formed according to the principles of one's own thinking.
The delineations were unclear and the depiction was greatly simplified.
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Only this book was translated into English Elements of folk-psychology thus providing but a much abridged insight into Wundt's differentiated cultural psychology. The Folk Psychology part of the title already demonstrates the low level of understanding.
The term Kulturpsychologie would have been more fitting though psychological development theory of the mind would very small single bedroom ideas expressed Wundt's intentions even better. Neuropsychology[ edit ] Wundt contributed to the state of neuropsychology as it existed at the time in three ways: through his criticism of the theory of localisation then widespread in neurologythrough his demand for research hypotheses founded on both neurological and psychological thinking, and through his neuropsychological concept of an apperception centre in the frontal cortex.
Wundt considered attention and the control of attention an excellent example of the desirable combination of experimental psychological and neurophysiological research. Wundt called for experimentation to localise the higher central nervous functions to be based on clear, psychologically-based research hypotheses because the questions could not be rendered precisely enough on the anatomical and physiological levels alone.
Wundt, Grundzüge,5th ed. Wundt based his central theory of apperception on neuropsychological modelling from the 3rd edition of the Grundzüge onwards.